Category Archives: The Bible

Colossians 3:18-19; Brief Thoughts

18 Wives, submit to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. 19 Husbands love your wives and do not be harsh with them.

Having completed an explanation of identity and motivation, Paul gives exhortations to the believer about how they are to conduct themselves in their relationships. It should not be surprising that Paul feels the need to give exhortation regarding those who are closest to us. The closest relationship a person has is their spouse. It is the spouse who sees the most intimate moments in the heart and life of a believer. Naturally, it is in these close relationships that must reflect the image of Christ in the heart of the believer.

A side note: the instructions given to wives in scripture are not given to the husband. The husband is not responsible for ensuring that she receives her instruction. The wife is responsible for her obedience and does not need her husband to instruct her in the way of obedience. Rather, the husband must trust the Holy Spirit to work in the heart of his wife. Likewise, the wife must trust that the Holy Spirit is going to work in the life of her husband. Consider spiritual growth in marriage this way: both the husband and the wife have their own bucket in which their own responsibilities for maintaining their relationship with the Lord are placed. Each one has a dipper with which they can reach into the bucket and share some of their own insight with others. They are welcome to share the contents of their bucket with their spouse. They are not welcome to put their dipper in the other person’s bucket be it to stir, correct, or withdraw. Kahlil Gibran urges married couples to “share [their] bread with one another, but do not eat from the same loaf.” In this way, you will provide for the other, but you will not steal from the other.

So wives are to recognize a chain of command. Wives are to submit to their husbands. Submission does not mean subjugation. Submission does not mean to ignore abuse or sin. (In cases of abuse, please separate yourself from that person and seek help from both church leaders AND police authorities. Biblical submission does not mean that a woman or a man leaves herself or himself in a dangerous situation. Abusers need to be addressed both by spiritual and civil authorities. There is much to be said on this, far more than we can cover in this passage. Here we will simply say – if you are being abused, please seek help from authorities and get some space between you and that abuser.) Rather, submit means to recognize the chain of command. The husband is the head of the household and as such is empowered to make decisions for the household. The wife is to speak boldly to her husband, respecting his position, challenging him to be a better leader, and engaging in honest dialogue with him. The husband is to be kind and gentle with his wife. He is to love her and be gentle with her. The term for love is the term for divine love. It is self-sacrificing love that transcends selfish motive so common to man. So while the wife is encouraged to submit, the husband is commanded to love and be gentle. The term for “harsh” used could also be translated “do not embitter your wife.” In other words, the term means that the husband must be careful not to make his wife bitter or her life so difficult that she loses hope and joy in her marriage.

Too often married couples use their words and concern to direct their spouse’s spiritual actions. Men will try to command their wives and, inadvertently, lead them to bitterness. Wives will nag their husbands and, inadvertently, disrespect their position as protector, provider, and leader thereby leading him to become passive and lazy, feeling as though he cannot win. Yet, if married couples will focus on their individual development and stop attempting to control their spouse, then there will be a great unity between the two. As is fitting in the Lord.

An explanation of motivation in the Lord is at the center of the exhortations given to each relationship set. So here in marriage, the roles of husband and wife are “fitting in the Lord.” Living under these guidelines are fitting, or appropriate. The word used for “fitting” is referring to a sense of duty or responsibility. Note that Paul’s appeal to the husband and wife is not based on a feeling or pleasure. It is based on duty. No one feels like submitting. Likewise, it is much easier for a husband to harshly command his wife void of love or concern. Submission is difficult. Tenderness is uncomfortable. Still, it is the duty of the wife and husband, respectively. Sometimes it is difficult for a wife to submit to her husband, yet, it is fitting for her to do so. Sometimes it is difficult for a husband to love his wife and not be harsh, yet, it remains his duty to love her and be kind and gentle with her. When a husband fails in his duty of love and tenderness towards his wife, submission becomes less and less appealing to the wife. Likewise, when the wife refuses all submission, her husband will have difficulty in his role. However, if both parties are lead by the Spirit of God and are obediently following Jesus, these exhortations are not burdensome but are a delight (1 John 5:3).

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Colossians 3:17; Brief thoughts

17 And whatever you do, in word or deed do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through Him.

“whatever you do” has served in some cases as a justification for claiming Gospel-centric efforts in every sphere of life. In general, the Christian culture of the western church has used this phrase to point the church to consider everything they do as an opportunity for the gospel. Indeed, “whatever” describes any activity in which one engages. This word can be interpreted very loosely as a simple phrase meaning that any and all activity can be made to be holy. However, considering the context of this particular chapter, “whatever” seems to be a reference to that which was stated in verses 12-16.

As noted in earlier entries on Colossians, verse 12-17 provide an explanation of the marks of a Christian. Paul establishes that the new nature has come and is being conformed to the image of its creator in verse 10 and then explains what Christians do that evidence this reality. In other words, a Christian pursues holiness. Taken in this context, the “whatever” that Paul is speaking of is closely linked to a pursuit of holiness. So it is here that we should take a moment and ponder the divine truth that God begins and completes the work in His people and that the people of God actively pursue a holy life in obedience to His word.

Philippians 1:6 asserts that God began the work of sanctification and that God will complete the work. In Romans 6:16 Paul praises God that the Roman Christians have become obedient from the heart (the obvious implication being that God has wrought that obedience). Yet, the exhortation to pursue holiness remains in Philippians 2 and 3 as well as Romans 6:19-23. The work of sanctification is decisively a divine work that results in human effort. True Christians have been made holy and true Christians pursue becoming holy.

So, whatever actions a believer may undertake in pursuit of that holiness, as they strive to be more Christ-like, it ought to be done in the name of Jesus.

Names matter. When someone knows your name, they know something about you that is a unique identifier. Unlike simple descriptors of appearance, a name offers some modicum of identity and personhood. When we identify someone by another moniker, we de-humanize them. When someone is referred to as “that man” or “the one with brown eyes,” we strip them of their persona and individual uniqueness. Likewise, when we give someone a new name like “Little-John” or “Scrappy,” we are adding to their identity by granting them a new name that is perhaps more fitting. So Paul calls for Christians to find their personal identification in Jesus Christ our Lord.

A believer’s identity is wrapped up in the name and nature of Jesus. When people encounter a Christian, that believer should be so immersed in the pursuit of holiness that people cannot help but associate them with Jesus. In every activity and every discipline that a Christian pursues, a pursuit of living like Jesus must be apparent. Christian, you have been changed! Now live like it.

Some preachers enjoy waxing eloquently that you should be doing all your tasks “as unto the Lord!” Implying that somehow you could drink coffee in your half-awake stupor to the glory of God! While it may be true that you can pursue all activities with holiness as a motivating factor, it is a bit hyperbolic to apply every menial task to the glory of the Almighty. Though in some sense it may be true that believers bring honor to God by living a peaceful and quiet life, it is also true that one could over-think what it means to do everything in the name of the Lord. In short, God is less concerned with whether or not you decide to drink a Dr. Pepper over a Coke than He is that you actually engage your neighbors with the Gospel. So consider what you are actually doing to pursue holiness as you consider this verse. Remember that you have been made holy and are empowered by the indwelling Holy Spirit to accomplish the work.

Finally, all is to be done with gratitude. The heart of Christian obedience is gratitude. Thankfulness is so critical to the sanctification process that Paul mentions it three verses in a row. In 15-17 Paul inserts the necessity of gratitude in a Christian’s life at the end of each exhortation. True believers do not pursue holiness out of obligation or requisite demand, but out of gratitude for what has already been accomplished. Indeed, this gratitude is precisely what drives a believer to live a holy, gospel-centered life.

Further, when a Christian considers the nature of grace and the mercy of God, they cannot help but be grateful. Such gratitude levels the playing field of community. When life is lived with a full understanding of what God has accomplished in the lives of those who love and serve Him, then there is no basis for arrogant self-exaltation. Understanding that grace is a continuous gift of God in the sanctification of the believer further diminishes any and all self-righteousness. When a person understands that their identity is wrapped up in Christ and that they are empowered by His working in their hearts, then there cannot be a “better than” mentality. Morality becomes something that is a delight for the individual, not an imposition on the community. Do you know this grace? Have you grasped the depth of what Christ has done for you? O Christian, grab hold of this great truth: God has made you holy, is making you holy, and will make you holy. You get to delight in the pursuit of holiness!

Colossians 3:16; Brief Thoughts

16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, singing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, with thankfulness in your hearts to God. 

If a person believes in a greater authority, then the word of that authority ought to be manifest in the life of that person. It is a reasonable measurement of authenticity to test them by the word of their professed authority. When someone submits to an authority, the word and directives of that authority are evident in their lives. Likewise, the word of Christ is manifest in the lives of those who profess Him as Savior and Lord. So Paul admonishes fellow believers to “Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly…” (v.16).

The word of Christ should be so ingrained in the heart and life of a believer that it is said to be alive within. Every thought and word that proceeds from the mouth of a believer ought to stem from the indwelling Spirit of the word of God. One of the greatest tragedies in the western church is the severe Biblical illiteracy. The word cannot dwell where it is not read. The average professing Christian in the west does not read their Bible on a daily basis. So pervasive is this truth that many pastors struggle to read even a chapter of the Bible each day. This should not be! True believers in Christ find their very animating breath in the Word of God (c.f. 2 Timothy 3:16-17). When Christians fail to read the word of Christ, they starve themselves of the breath of God and are spiritually suffocating. Alas, we live in a churched culture that values everything but the Word of God and we are watching the degradation of society as a result.

Not only are Christians to fill themselves with the word of God, they are to do so “richly!” By asserting this descriptor, Paul is calling the believer to more than mere engagement with Scripture. He is calling the believer to a feast! Believers do not merely read the word of Christ, they draw their life’s breath from the very word of God. The fullness of a believer’s inner being is found in and through their relationship with the word of Christ.

As the believer embraces the indwelling word, they begin to exhibit some evidence of that word in their life. The word of Christ begins to dictate the things they say and do to one another, leading them to teach and admonish brothers and sisters in Christ through that word. As the heart of a believer matures in their grasp of the word, wisdom will become common in their teaching and encouragement of each other. The beginning of wisdom is the “fear of the Lord” (Prov. 1:7, 9:10, and Psalm 111:10). As Christians submit to the word of the Lord in their lives, teaching and admonition pour forth from their mouth. As the word takes root in their heart, the overflow of the heart pours out onto the community around them. One of the greatest joys of Godly community is the unity of Christians as grounded in Scripture. Such a unity that is founded on the grace of Scripture, levels the Spiritual playing field among the community. When Scripture is the source of wisdom, hierarchy ceases to exist. All within the community are subject to the word of Christ indwelling them. So, Christians confront each other in love with the word of God. In beautiful, wise engagement with the community, true Christianity changes the heart of the individual as they engage together with the whole community.

This beauty of community centralized on the word results in a unique expression of singing. Singing is natural for Christians who stand in awe of God. Singing is a response that is birthed in the heart of one who has observed God. Once a person sees God, they cannot help but express something. Singing is the most common of responses for the human heart. The word of Christ, dwelling inside a Christian, will manifest itself in Song. This is why it is not abnormal for Christian communities to sing, produce, and embrace corporate worship in song. Christians sing, so, Christian, sing! And what should we sing? Psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs. What these terms mean are often debated. Some argue that Christians should only sing the Psalms and that these are the three types of Psalms in the book of Psalms. Others argue that Psalms refers to the Old Testament book, Hymns are dominantly theological, and Spiritual songs tend to be songs that give testimony to God’s work. Still, others explain that these are three different structural designs for musical expression. Whatever the case, the point of this passage is that the word of Christ manifests itself in singing. Indeed, when the heart is lifted to heaven on the wings of the word of Christ, a song will inevitably ensue.

Thankfulness results in as the culmination of a Christian’s abiding in the word of God. Recognizing the depth and greatness of God’s grace, Christians live a life of gratitude and love for God.

Are these manifest in your life? If you claim Christ, then feast deeply on the word of God and these will become the manifest evidences of the indwelling word of Christ!

Colossians 3:15; Brief Thoughts

15 And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts to which indeed you were called in one body. And be thankful.

Establishing love as the chief mark of Christianity as love, Paul continues to give exhortation with regard to the manner in which a believer should live. If love exemplifies the nature of Christianity, then the life of a believer ought to manifest peace, unity, and gratitude. In a world so tainted by sin and despair, the ideals of peace and unity must be pursued in order to be made manifest.

The imperatives of verses 15-17 are exhortations that must be actively pursued. The world surrounding Christians is a world that attempts to ruin the peace of believers and is actively attempting to stifle the believer’s ability to grow in holiness. Paul warns in Ephesians that the believer should make the most of the time they have because the very days themselves are evil and actively work against believers (Ephesians 5:15-16). Peace is a goal that the true believers must strive for. In order to have peace, one must work to establish it. The effort to cultivate peace begins in the heart of a believer and is secured through the community of believers. Paul’s admonition to “let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts” is both a command to submit to Jesus and a reminder that He is King. The word translated “rule” means to control or arbitrate for the benefit of another. Christians must strive to bring their entire being under the control of Christ’s character. Some of that will require surrender to His work and plan. For most believers, surrender is simply a matter of trusting that the Lord is good and will accomplish what He promises. For others, surrender actually entails a giving over or giving up of some activities and efforts that are inconsistent with following Christ. In order for the peace of Christ to be present, Christians must surrender to His rule.

The peace of Christ also thrives through a consistent Biblical community. When true Christians intertwine their lives together, the peace of Christ is made manifest in the transparency and grace of the community. As believers gather together to worship God, serve others, and love one another, the love and character of God are made manifest and the peace of Christ results (1 John 4:12). Paul’s exhortation is that the peace of Christ would rule in the collective body of believers. This peace that transcends all understanding is present most effectively and most obviously in a Christian community (Philippians 4:7). Consider for a moment your own circumstance. Are you living in community with fellow believers? Could you say the peace of Christ rules within your heart? If the answer is no to both, then perhaps you ought to consider finding a faithful Christian community to join. Search for one that teaches the Bible and urges you to live a holy life. In our world, anxiety and turmoil are common among people. Strive to engage with brothers and sisters who love the Lord and live in holy community.

At the conclusion of verse 16, Paul urges the Colossians to “be thankful.” Gratitude is perhaps the greatest weapon that a believer has against the unsettled anxiety of the tortured world we live in. When Christians cultivate a spirit of gratitude for all things, they can often overcome the besetting anxiousness that overwhelms. There are two reasons that cultivating gratitude can provide a sense of peace among believers. The first is in the recognition that Christ is Lord over and sustainer of all things. So a believer can give thanks to The Lord, knowing that He is providing according to His plan and desires, which are ALWAYS good. Second reason gratitude begets peace is that gratitude is a way to conform the thoughts and mind to consider God’s will greater than our own. Cultivating gratitude for everything slowly transforms the way we engage in this life and removes the critical and self-righteous attempt to rule over our circumstances. In this way, we can say with Paul in Philippians that we have “learned the secret of contentment” (Philippians 4:11). For more on cultivating a spirit of gratitude, go check out Anne Voskamp’s books “1000 gifts” and “the broken way.”

Colossians 3:14; Brief Thoughts

14 And above all these put on love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony. 

The distinguishing mark of a believer in Christ Jesus is love. The word used for “love” is the Greek word “agape.” This specific word refers to a love that is self-sacrificing and is focused on the benefit of others. This is a truly divine love modeled by Jesus’ death on the cross. Taking all the sin of man upon Himself, He willingly laid down His own life, suffering death on a cross for the sake of God’s love for us. That is the example of love Christians follow. Christians are to exemplify dying to self so that others can delight in life! Paul explains the nature of Christians’ ministry in 2 Corinthians 4:11-12. “For we who live are always being given over to death for Jesus’ sake, so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our mortal flesh. So death is at work in us, but life in you.” The love that Paul exhorts Christians to display is intense. It goes beyond feelings and simple displays of affections. This kind of love gives itself over to death for that sake of others. Is there a greater binding power than this kind of love?

The love of Jesus breaks through every barrier and creates a connection that transcends this earth. When Jesus died on the cross, he bore the sins of all mankind on the cross. He bore the sins of all nationalities, all dispositions, all types of people. John states it well when he says that Jesus “is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.” Jesus’ love does not select types or races of people. Rather, His love breaks through barriers of all types and brings salvation to any who believe. Galatians 3:28 states, “there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” Christ has removed all divisions and segregations that mankind has been beholden to.

In considering this kind of love, the church ought to be the place in which every tribe, tongue, and nation brings their own unique expression of worship into the symphony of love for God’s glory and presence. The love of Jesus not only removes all barriers, it also unites those who believe in praise to God. The church should mirror that reality. It is a sad reality that churches in the west do not reflect the variety of God’s creation. Our churches lack diversity and yet we proclaim a love that transcends cultural divides. So, to my brothers and sisters in leadership in the American church, we must do better. We must love well every person in our neighborhood and seek out those who do not have the same cultural background. This is not simply a justice issue! This is more than that. This is a love issue. We cannot rightly display the love of God if we are unwilling to express that love beyond our own race, culture, or creed.

Moreover, those who direct worship must exemplify this kind of love by displaying the various creative methodologies for worship! Incorporate art and poetry into your services. Utilize dance and drama to the display of His glorious might! Paul uses the musical metaphor to describe love here because the display of love is inherently musical to God! As we display His love on this earth, we join the symphony of praise in creation and display His very creative nature. I contend that we can do more! We can express the praise of God through art, speeches, poetry, displays of kindness, giving, service… etc. Explore the avenues to express the love of Christ and do not tie yourself or your people down to songs, prayer, and sermons alone. God is infinitely giving His love, our praise of His glory ought to display that love infinitely!

Notice, this love that has set us free from sin also binds all things together. Indeed, in the end, all things will be bound together by the love of God. As God restores and re-creates the earth in the book of Revelation, all things will be united in worship of His glory. Yet, this unity need not wait in the heart of Christian community. It is possible, now, for the church to mirror such radical culture defying love. As people join the true Christian community through faith in Jesus Christ, that community should so radically reflect the love of Jesus that diversity of culture and expression would be explosively manifest in the church! Let us strive for such a love. A love that transcends all else – the love of Jesus made manifest in His people, revealing the very nature of God to a dying world.

There is much more to say about the implications of the transcendent love as the greatest mark of a Christian. It is not my intention to exhaust the inexhaustible love of God and the subsequent manifestation of that divine attribute. What are some of the implications and applications that you see? Let’s chat about them! Put them in the comments below!

Colossians 3:13, Brief Thoughts

13 bearing with one another and, if one has a complaint against another, forgiving each other; as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive.

The final three marks of the new nature of a Christian listed in verses 12-14 are identified as longsuffering, forgiveness, and love (in verse 14, to be considered in the next post).

The seventh character trait Paul exhorts Christians to is that of long-suffering. The Christian community ought to be the most welcoming and hospitable group that one can identify with. As believers, Christians have experienced a forgiveness that transcends all reason. They have been forgiven an offense that is so great as to warrant eternal damnation. Further, they were not seeking to be forgiven, nor acknowledging their need for forgiveness (Rom. 3:9-20). Instead, it was lavished upon them by the grace of God (1 John 3:1). In this forgiven state, Christians must recognize that they were in no way better or wiser than another person. Rather, they were enemies of God whom God bore with great patience until the day of their repentance (C.f. Rom. 5:8 and 2 Peter 3:19). In this recognition, there is no one that Christians are incapable of “bearing with.”

Accompanying the long-suffering of a Christian community is forgiveness. True believers forgive. As mentioned with long-suffering, Christians forgive much because they have been forgiven much. Jesus explains that one who recognizes the depth of forgiveness they have received will lavish love and forgiveness upon others because they have experienced it themselves (Luke 7:47). Therefore, a lack of forgiveness might serve as a test of the authenticity of one’s faith. Christians forgive, it is part of their nature to do so.

Living in community together guarantees that there will be conflict. When human beings gather together, whether, for worship, labor, or leisure, there will inevitably be opportunity for sin and subsequent complaint against others within the community. Though in an ideal situation, no one will feel the need to complain against another brother or sister, we live in a sinful world in which ideal situations do not truly exist. When one person is upset by another, there is struggle and frustration. However, God has renewed the spirit of Christians and given them new natures from which Christians can love each other in spite of sinful desires that cause quarrels (James 4). So, Christians ought to be marked by a forgiveness that transcends their own need to be right or their need to fulfill their own desires.

This overcoming of desires in favor of forgiveness is only achievable when the community realizes that God has empowered every individual to forgive the way Christ has forgiven. Consider for a moment what extent of love and forgiveness that Christ has poured out upon those who believe. The eternal Christ made Himself mortal and put on human frailty (Philippians 2:1-11). He lowered Himself from exalted heights to love a people who despise and reject Him (John 13). He lives perfectly, forgives extravagantly, serves humbly, and surrenders Himself to the charges of the wicked, in order to save the lowly. After accomplishing all of that, He grants those who believe in Him a new nature that is clean and then consistently renews that nature after His own image until He completes it (Col. 3:9-10 and Philippians 1:6). This is why Christians must forgive – they have been forgiven.

It is not enough for a Christian to forgive alone. They must forgive in the same way Christ forgave. A Christian’s forgiveness must transcend the simplistic forgiveness that the world affords. The forgiveness of the world is transactional – I’ll forgive A if B is done. The forgiveness of Christ says I’ll forgive A no matter what. The forgiveness of Christ does not complain about past grievances or hold a record of wrongs. The forgiveness of Christ separates the sin from the person as far as east from west. This is a mark of Christianity – the Christian forgives with love. If someone claims Christ, but cannot forgive in this way, then that person needs to examine themselves to see if they really know Christ, for it is by the fruit of our hearts that we testify that He has changed us and that He is our Lord.

Colossians 3:12; Brief Thoughts

12 Put on then, as God’s chosen ones, holy and beloved, compassionate hearts, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience,

Having put off the old nature, Christians strive to live the lifestyle of holiness that develops feeds and satisfies their new nature. The phrase translated “put on then” is an exhortation that is based on the assumption that the reader has already been changed.[1] Having removed the death that once enshrouded their soul, Christians ought to put on the new life in Christ. This apparent change of attire is not surprising. As one has removed the old self, the new-self has become the defining wardrobe.

This change of natures is due to God’s choice. Least any reader consider him or herself to be wise and boast in their own strength, Paul reassures us that God is the one who has accomplished the work of salvation and He is also the one who has brought life to the previously dead soul. God has chosen to save and set-apart believers because He loves them. The Creator has deemed that He will love His creation and redeem those who believe simply because they are His (1 John 4:10). If therefore, we have been chosen as His and if we are His holy and beloved, then we will look and behave as such.

Evidence of a changed nature bears obvious manifestation in the actions of interpersonal relationships. When one has become changed and has been given a new nature that is capable of pursuing holiness, they will inevitably become more like Christ. So Paul exhorts the believer to pursue divine love and grace within the context of their relationships.

Let us take the next words slowly, that we may feast on the richness of the exhortation.

First, a believer must recognize that they are “chosen ones, holy and beloved.” Consider for a moment what that means. God saw fit to rescue and set believers apart.[2] He set them apart (“holy”) because they are beloved by Him. God has lavished His love upon His believers. The recognition that God has redeemed and saved Christians by His own will, ought to lead believers to a sense of equality and grace style living as a result. The manifest characteristics that follow are a result of the truth that God has redeemed a lost soul, has changed that soul and has given life to that soul.

Second, believers exhibit compassionate hearts. They have a genuine concern for others. Most often this particular attribute is manifested in the activity of prayer and social action. When a truly converted Christian hears of devastation, they weep. It is, therefore, reasonable to gauge the hearts of a Christian community by their prayer concerns for those who are persecuted (Romans 12:15).

Third, kindness overflows from the compassionate heart. As a believer is confronted with tragedy and difficulty, they will respond in kind acts. A compassionate heart without kindness is hypocritical. Therefore, the genuineness of the heart is made evident in the kind actions of the hands.

Fourth, Christians ought to bear a humble disposition. When a person realizes that salvation is by grace through faith granted from God, then there is no room for haughty self-righteousness. Rather a Christian recognizes that they are no better than the darkest of sinners. There is no room for self-righteous pride in the life of a believer. If any is found, God will certainly sanctify that malady out of the Christian’s life (Hebrews 12:6).

Fifth, the meekness of Christ is evident in the life of a believer. It is evident because Christ lives within. If Jesus’ spirit is indwelling the Christian, the Christian will manifest meekness. They will think of the needs of others first, refuse to dominate or subdue others, and will have a generally gentle and hospitable demeanor.

Sixth, patience is often accepted as a key character trait of Christianity but dismissed because of circumstance. For instance, a Christian will find themselves frustrated with circumstance caused by others and will vent that frustration in unholy gossip or slander. Yet, it is generally accepted that patience is a fruit of the Spirit that ought to characterize a Christian (Galatians 5:22-24). So, the true believer is without excuse for such ventilation. The true Christian ought to bear with circumstances and with others in patience and the evidence of that patience will be a lack of grumbling or complaining (Phil. 2:14).

We will consider the rest of Paul’s list tomorrow.

[1] This verb is in the Aorist Imperative tense. Often aorist imperatives can be understood as delivering an exhortation that is based on a condition apparent from the past. For example: If a man becomes an engineer, goes to school and achieves the degree. The aorist tense imperative might appear when one says, “Let him work in the engineering field.” It is a command based on a condition that became him in the past.

[2] I am not here entering into a discussion of election, though that would be appropriate. That is a long discussion for another passage.