Colossians 3:15; Brief Thoughts

15 And let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts to which indeed you were called in one body. And be thankful.

Establishing love as the chief mark of Christianity as love, Paul continues to give exhortation with regard to the manner in which a believer should live. If love exemplifies the nature of Christianity, then the life of a believer ought to manifest peace, unity, and gratitude. In a world so tainted by sin and despair, the ideals of peace and unity must be pursued in order to be made manifest.

The imperatives of verses 15-17 are exhortations that must be actively pursued. The world surrounding Christians is a world that attempts to ruin the peace of believers and is actively attempting to stifle the believer’s ability to grow in holiness. Paul warns in Ephesians that the believer should make the most of the time they have because the very days themselves are evil and actively work against believers (Ephesians 5:15-16). Peace is a goal that the true believers must strive for. In order to have peace, one must work to establish it. The effort to cultivate peace begins in the heart of a believer and is secured through the community of believers. Paul’s admonition to “let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts” is both a command to submit to Jesus and a reminder that He is King. The word translated “rule” means to control or arbitrate for the benefit of another. Christians must strive to bring their entire being under the control of Christ’s character. Some of that will require surrender to His work and plan. For most believers, surrender is simply a matter of trusting that the Lord is good and will accomplish what He promises. For others, surrender actually entails a giving over or giving up of some activities and efforts that are inconsistent with following Christ. In order for the peace of Christ to be present, Christians must surrender to His rule.

The peace of Christ also thrives through a consistent Biblical community. When true Christians intertwine their lives together, the peace of Christ is made manifest in the transparency and grace of the community. As believers gather together to worship God, serve others, and love one another, the love and character of God are made manifest and the peace of Christ results (1 John 4:12). Paul’s exhortation is that the peace of Christ would rule in the collective body of believers. This peace that transcends all understanding is present most effectively and most obviously in a Christian community (Philippians 4:7). Consider for a moment your own circumstance. Are you living in community with fellow believers? Could you say the peace of Christ rules within your heart? If the answer is no to both, then perhaps you ought to consider finding a faithful Christian community to join. Search for one that teaches the Bible and urges you to live a holy life. In our world, anxiety and turmoil are common among people. Strive to engage with brothers and sisters who love the Lord and live in holy community.

At the conclusion of verse 16, Paul urges the Colossians to “be thankful.” Gratitude is perhaps the greatest weapon that a believer has against the unsettled anxiety of the tortured world we live in. When Christians cultivate a spirit of gratitude for all things, they can often overcome the besetting anxiousness that overwhelms. There are two reasons that cultivating gratitude can provide a sense of peace among believers. The first is in the recognition that Christ is Lord over and sustainer of all things. So a believer can give thanks to The Lord, knowing that He is providing according to His plan and desires, which are ALWAYS good. Second reason gratitude begets peace is that gratitude is a way to conform the thoughts and mind to consider God’s will greater than our own. Cultivating gratitude for everything slowly transforms the way we engage in this life and removes the critical and self-righteous attempt to rule over our circumstances. In this way, we can say with Paul in Philippians that we have “learned the secret of contentment” (Philippians 4:11). For more on cultivating a spirit of gratitude, go check out Anne Voskamp’s books “1000 gifts” and “the broken way.”

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3 Tips to be Present

Have you ever been in a conversation with someone and then realized that you’re not actually paying attention to what is being said? Perhaps you’ve drifted off to follow some thought squirrel that has decided challenge your intellectual consistency over something you read four years ago. As you ponder the significance of stability within the recipe for ketchup, you suddenly realize you’re not present in the conversation. Now your mind snaps back in to engage the conversation again. As you struggle to re-engage with the friend who has been patiently awaiting your response, you suddenly realize that you’ve missed the last several minutes of discussion. Frustrated and slightly annoyed, you consider your options.

Option one: continue to try and fake it through the conversation.

Option two: make an excuse to end the conversation abruptly and flee from your friend.

Option three: admit you have not been present and ask them to repeat themselves.

Being present is not always easy. Sometimes we’ve been drained of intellectual stimulus for so long that it is nearly impossible for us to focus on anything other than the thought spirals that are flying through our minds. Sometimes we’ve been deprived of human interaction (or adult interaction) that we simply cannot hold the floodgates closed and our minds just race without hope of stopping. And sometimes, just sometimes, we don’t care about the conversation we are in. None of these are valid reasons for not being present. Don’t get me wrong! Being present is hard. It takes effort to care for the concerns of other people and to lay your own cards down in effort to love and listen well. But we must be present if we are to love well.

Here are three short things to do in order to maintain presence in a conversation.

  1. Lead the questions. If you ask the questions, you are less likely to drift away from the answer. So, ask questions that matter. Try to stay away from short answer questions that lack specifics. Instead of asking how someone is doing, ask “what are you most excited about in the next month?” Instead of asking “What’s been going on?” Ask, “What is something you’ve learned recently that has really shifted your thinking?” Then ask good follow-up questions that can help progress the conversation. A good conversationalist will be able to ask questions that lead to more valuable topics of discussion. So start practicing. Start asking questions that matter. Invest yourself in others by asking good questions.
  2. Get better sleep. Without a doubt, I am awful at tracking with a conversation or a person when I don’t sleep well. I have a naturally nervous mind and I am a relatively anxious person. Now I’m a pastor… so I spend a good bit of time trying to talk with people. If I am not rested, I can go a whole conversation and miss 60% of what is said. The person begins to talk and I begin to drift off into a form of contemplation of some theological reality I wrestled with years ago. Once this has happened, it is nearly impossible to catch up with the conversation. The greater my exhaustion the weaker my ability to focus. One easy way to remedy this is to take a nap before you go to meet with someone. About two hours before your meeting, take a thirty-minute nap. That way you’ll have plenty of time to wake up and more energy to focus when in the meeting.
  3. Write down the needs and prayer concerns of others. Perhaps the root issue of your lack of presence is a genuine lack of compassion. It’s ok to lack compassion. Compassion is something that you cultivate over a long period of time. So you should make strides to develop it. One way I have learned to do this is through prayer journaling. As I talk with people about their needs, I often take notes on my phone. When I get home, I transfer those to a prayer journal. The next time I meet with that person I have been developing compassion for them and it is much easier for me to be present with them.

Is there anything specific you do to be present? Put it in the comments.

6 Lessons from the Jo-Bits

Hi! My name is Jo-Bits! I’m “the boy!” Tootie the Poots got to post one of these yesterday, and I want my turn. So I made Daddy do some household chores (destroyed stuff that he has to fix) while I wrote this bloggy thingy.

IMG_59591. Always be prepared! When I leave the fortress (house), I always bring my sword You never know when the trumpet blast will sound for battle! I have three sisters and I am their protector. Daddy says, “God gave us hands so we can protect others.” So when we go on walks I like to be prepared to protect. You never know what kind of whether you’re going to encounter either. You should be prepared for all types. I sometimes wear shorts, a winter jacket, AND a hood of some sort! This way I prepared for whatever rain or cold or hot comes my way. Don’t tell my sisters, but this preparation is for the purpose of serving others. I carry a sword so I can protect my sisters. I have a raincoat to offer them if it rains and if they don’t take it – I scream at them (then Daddy talks to me about loving my sisters). I dress and outfit myself to help others. I think if big people would think of the things God gives them as opportunities to help others, maybe we wouldn’t need to carry swords around all the time.

DSPB41992. My hands were given to me to defend the weak! My sisters, Tootie the Poot and Bus Bus sometimes get scared… Ellie is seldom afraid, but sometimes she is scared too. When my sisters are afraid, I transform into Warrior Jo-Bits! I will smash bugs, destroy buildings, and generally wage war on anything that threatens my sisters. God made me mighty and I must use that might to protect the weak and stand up for justice!

IMG_59453. Make faces for fun. Be silly for the good of others! I like making faces, especially when Daddy says, “smile for the picture!” Making faces and being silly can be helpful too. When a sissy is upset, I like to try to make her laugh. Sometimes she is really sad and it is hard to cheer her up… that’s when I bring the silliest of faces out! Daddy says, “don’t sweat the small stuff and always remember, everything is small when you’re far enough away from it.” I like to make people back away from whatever it is that is making them said by making them laugh. As they laugh, their emotions get farther away from the circumstance that is causing them hurt and they start to see that the cookie that fell on the ground is not such a bad circumstance.

IMG_59634. Noise making is awesome, as long as you are contributing to the ruckus! I like people to know I am here. I think everyone ought to know I exist. So I make noise! I shake stuff and make sounds and bop around the room! Everyone sees me and I get to laugh with people at the silly sounds I make. I think God likes this. Daddy says, “There’s an appropriate time to add to the rhythm and music of life and an inappropriate time.” I think every time is appropriate to add to the noise of joy! You should try it! Go make some noise and let people know you exist. Write a poem (its not that hard… Daddy does it!), sing a song, dance around the room, grab to sticks and play drums on something (note: it’s best not to do this on your sisters… trust me, it doesn’t end well.) Make some noise, because silence can be golden, but noise is fun!

IMG_59375. Always check the stability of the fence that keeps you out. When we walk to the beaver’s house, I check the local fences to ensure their stability. It may seem odd, but I like to make sure that my neighbors have strong fortifications… even if they are there to keep me out. You see, I need to protect people with my hands, AND I need to protect people FROM my hands. I want to help my neighbors to be strong so that I will not accidentally hurt them or wander into their yards. Big people sometimes forget that we are responsible for protecting others from ourselves. This is part of loving people well. If I love my neighbors, I will protect them from others AND I will be careful to protect them from myself as well.

IMG_59306. Don’t forget, some of God’s greatest treasures are found in the dirt. I find all kinds of amazing things in the dirt – feathers, toys, pecans, bottle tops, moneys, etc… I think that God sees amazing things in the dirt too! So I like to look close and pick up the treasures He has left for me. Often, Daddy tells me to stop picking up trash (but that’s a discussion for another day). In the fall, I find pecans in the dirt. In the spring I find amazing rocks! In the summer, I complain because it’s hot. There are treasures in the dirt… you just have to look to find them. The dirt seems like it’s not valuable… but if you dig a bit, you find treasures (and sometimes trash)! It’s the same with people, I think. Sometimes we forget that the treasure is not when we see people at their best, but when we have to dig to find the treasure of their heart in the dirt. Just a thought – maybe we should spend a little more time looking for treasure in the dirt of our lives rather than trying to stay out of the mess of living?

6 Lessons from Tootie the Poot!

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Sometimes Daddy needs a break, so I told him to “Go out of office!”

I’m Tootie the Poots! You know, like Winnie the Pooh… except I’m not a bear, and I’m not a cartoon, and I am not full of fluff… and I’m a poot, not a pooh. I thought I’d share with you some of my thoughts on life today! So here goes… Let’s take a walk together!

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1. Stop and enjoy the soda Daddy bought for you. On the first day of the week, Daddy often takes us children on a long walk to get a soda (and sometimes a cookie). Often on the return journey, I simply stop walking and enjoy my drink. Everyone else is so busy trying to be in front or climbing some tree that they miss the joy of the soda right in front of them. Daddy got me this drink and it is DELIGHTFUL! So I stop and take in the gift of delight that is in my hands. Take some time and enjoy the soda that you were given. Don’t be so worried about getting back to the house to work or put me down for a nap. Just stop, sip, enjoy.

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2. Cookies are best when shared! I think we were made to share. Jo-Bits and I often share a drink and cookie when Daddy takes us on walks. He’s great! As we enjoy the gifts our Daddy has given us, Jo-Bits makes sure that I have enough. Daddy often asks us, “why do you look at your neighbor’s plate?” The answer is always the same – “to see if they have enough.” As I sit with others and share the cookie my Daddy got me, I get to see the delight on their face. Together we savor the sweetness and joy of the treat, laughing as the mess increases and chocolate covers our fingers and faces. It is as if these gifts we have were given to us so that we may enjoy and delight in each other.IMG_5953

3. Be alert and enjoy the world around you. See this cat!? I named him, but I can’t remember what I named him so I’m going to call him, Cat. On our way home from the beaver’s place, this charming fellow sought to join in our merriment. I’m closer to the ground, so I saw him first. Oh, what a delight it was to see such a funny creature looking back at me! We talked about stuff and I laughed at the jokes he told that no one else could understand. He stretched and rolled around on the ground and I think he told me he wanted me to scratch his ears. Big people, who aren’t as close to the ground, forget to enjoy these moments when we can interact with nature. Every day we are afforded the opportunity to delight in the creation. Daddy calls it the poetry of life, but I think it is just a pretty cool cat. You should take some time and talk to a cat.

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4. When you’re walking on a wet road and it seems slippery, just reach up and hold Daddy’s hand. Sometimes, the road we walk is wet and muddy. Cars disregard the cute procession of children walking along the side of the road. My shoes sometimes get muddy and I need a little reassurance that the ground is not going to swallow me whole. So I reach up and grab daddy’s hand! His hands are strong and I can trust them to keep me steady. I sometimes forget He is walking beside me, but then when I need Him most, I reach up and there is His hand… it’s like He knows my anxious thoughts and how to care for them. So, when the road gets troublesome, grab on to Daddy’s hand.

IMG_59355. Sometimes you have to get close to the dirt to see the wonders! Have you ever stooped down to see the bugs in action? They are amazing! I’m closer to the ground so I see them easier, but even I have to get close sometimes. Bend down low and look close! Daddy says, “God put those there so we would see how much He cares about little things.” I think God put them there so I could be amazed! Sometimes the things low in the dirt are the most worthwhile things to look at. The littlest and most insignificant among us often offer us the most beautiful and best expressions of praise to God. Take time to get close to the dirt, that is where you will see God working the most.

IMG_59226. Don’t worry about the big bad telephone pole, Jo-Bits – the warrior is walking with us! I have a brother. He is brave and destroys those things that scare me. I saw a spider on the telephone pole and I was a little worried that it might eat my face off. Fortunately for me, Daddy brought along my big brother Jo-Bits! He leaped into action with his plastic tube (he called it a light-saber) and decimated the enemy. My brother and I also fight and argue sometimes. Daddy says that is a good thing, because “if they won’t argue with you when you’re wrong, they won’t stand up for you when you’re right.” You see, when we walk together, we can trust in the ones we walk with to stand up for us in times of trouble. Jo-Bits is sometimes difficult and makes me scream, but when there’s a scary spider or caterpillar, or ant, Jo-Bits is there!

Colossians 3:14; Brief Thoughts

14 And above all these put on love, which binds everything together in perfect harmony. 

The distinguishing mark of a believer in Christ Jesus is love. The word used for “love” is the Greek word “agape.” This specific word refers to a love that is self-sacrificing and is focused on the benefit of others. This is a truly divine love modeled by Jesus’ death on the cross. Taking all the sin of man upon Himself, He willingly laid down His own life, suffering death on a cross for the sake of God’s love for us. That is the example of love Christians follow. Christians are to exemplify dying to self so that others can delight in life! Paul explains the nature of Christians’ ministry in 2 Corinthians 4:11-12. “For we who live are always being given over to death for Jesus’ sake, so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our mortal flesh. So death is at work in us, but life in you.” The love that Paul exhorts Christians to display is intense. It goes beyond feelings and simple displays of affections. This kind of love gives itself over to death for that sake of others. Is there a greater binding power than this kind of love?

The love of Jesus breaks through every barrier and creates a connection that transcends this earth. When Jesus died on the cross, he bore the sins of all mankind on the cross. He bore the sins of all nationalities, all dispositions, all types of people. John states it well when he says that Jesus “is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.” Jesus’ love does not select types or races of people. Rather, His love breaks through barriers of all types and brings salvation to any who believe. Galatians 3:28 states, “there is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” Christ has removed all divisions and segregations that mankind has been beholden to.

In considering this kind of love, the church ought to be the place in which every tribe, tongue, and nation brings their own unique expression of worship into the symphony of love for God’s glory and presence. The love of Jesus not only removes all barriers, it also unites those who believe in praise to God. The church should mirror that reality. It is a sad reality that churches in the west do not reflect the variety of God’s creation. Our churches lack diversity and yet we proclaim a love that transcends cultural divides. So, to my brothers and sisters in leadership in the American church, we must do better. We must love well every person in our neighborhood and seek out those who do not have the same cultural background. This is not simply a justice issue! This is more than that. This is a love issue. We cannot rightly display the love of God if we are unwilling to express that love beyond our own race, culture, or creed.

Moreover, those who direct worship must exemplify this kind of love by displaying the various creative methodologies for worship! Incorporate art and poetry into your services. Utilize dance and drama to the display of His glorious might! Paul uses the musical metaphor to describe love here because the display of love is inherently musical to God! As we display His love on this earth, we join the symphony of praise in creation and display His very creative nature. I contend that we can do more! We can express the praise of God through art, speeches, poetry, displays of kindness, giving, service… etc. Explore the avenues to express the love of Christ and do not tie yourself or your people down to songs, prayer, and sermons alone. God is infinitely giving His love, our praise of His glory ought to display that love infinitely!

Notice, this love that has set us free from sin also binds all things together. Indeed, in the end, all things will be bound together by the love of God. As God restores and re-creates the earth in the book of Revelation, all things will be united in worship of His glory. Yet, this unity need not wait in the heart of Christian community. It is possible, now, for the church to mirror such radical culture defying love. As people join the true Christian community through faith in Jesus Christ, that community should so radically reflect the love of Jesus that diversity of culture and expression would be explosively manifest in the church! Let us strive for such a love. A love that transcends all else – the love of Jesus made manifest in His people, revealing the very nature of God to a dying world.

There is much more to say about the implications of the transcendent love as the greatest mark of a Christian. It is not my intention to exhaust the inexhaustible love of God and the subsequent manifestation of that divine attribute. What are some of the implications and applications that you see? Let’s chat about them! Put them in the comments below!

Colossians 3:13, Brief Thoughts

13 bearing with one another and, if one has a complaint against another, forgiving each other; as the Lord has forgiven you, so you also must forgive.

The final three marks of the new nature of a Christian listed in verses 12-14 are identified as longsuffering, forgiveness, and love (in verse 14, to be considered in the next post).

The seventh character trait Paul exhorts Christians to is that of long-suffering. The Christian community ought to be the most welcoming and hospitable group that one can identify with. As believers, Christians have experienced a forgiveness that transcends all reason. They have been forgiven an offense that is so great as to warrant eternal damnation. Further, they were not seeking to be forgiven, nor acknowledging their need for forgiveness (Rom. 3:9-20). Instead, it was lavished upon them by the grace of God (1 John 3:1). In this forgiven state, Christians must recognize that they were in no way better or wiser than another person. Rather, they were enemies of God whom God bore with great patience until the day of their repentance (C.f. Rom. 5:8 and 2 Peter 3:19). In this recognition, there is no one that Christians are incapable of “bearing with.”

Accompanying the long-suffering of a Christian community is forgiveness. True believers forgive. As mentioned with long-suffering, Christians forgive much because they have been forgiven much. Jesus explains that one who recognizes the depth of forgiveness they have received will lavish love and forgiveness upon others because they have experienced it themselves (Luke 7:47). Therefore, a lack of forgiveness might serve as a test of the authenticity of one’s faith. Christians forgive, it is part of their nature to do so.

Living in community together guarantees that there will be conflict. When human beings gather together, whether, for worship, labor, or leisure, there will inevitably be opportunity for sin and subsequent complaint against others within the community. Though in an ideal situation, no one will feel the need to complain against another brother or sister, we live in a sinful world in which ideal situations do not truly exist. When one person is upset by another, there is struggle and frustration. However, God has renewed the spirit of Christians and given them new natures from which Christians can love each other in spite of sinful desires that cause quarrels (James 4). So, Christians ought to be marked by a forgiveness that transcends their own need to be right or their need to fulfill their own desires.

This overcoming of desires in favor of forgiveness is only achievable when the community realizes that God has empowered every individual to forgive the way Christ has forgiven. Consider for a moment what extent of love and forgiveness that Christ has poured out upon those who believe. The eternal Christ made Himself mortal and put on human frailty (Philippians 2:1-11). He lowered Himself from exalted heights to love a people who despise and reject Him (John 13). He lives perfectly, forgives extravagantly, serves humbly, and surrenders Himself to the charges of the wicked, in order to save the lowly. After accomplishing all of that, He grants those who believe in Him a new nature that is clean and then consistently renews that nature after His own image until He completes it (Col. 3:9-10 and Philippians 1:6). This is why Christians must forgive – they have been forgiven.

It is not enough for a Christian to forgive alone. They must forgive in the same way Christ forgave. A Christian’s forgiveness must transcend the simplistic forgiveness that the world affords. The forgiveness of the world is transactional – I’ll forgive A if B is done. The forgiveness of Christ says I’ll forgive A no matter what. The forgiveness of Christ does not complain about past grievances or hold a record of wrongs. The forgiveness of Christ separates the sin from the person as far as east from west. This is a mark of Christianity – the Christian forgives with love. If someone claims Christ, but cannot forgive in this way, then that person needs to examine themselves to see if they really know Christ, for it is by the fruit of our hearts that we testify that He has changed us and that He is our Lord.

Colossians 3:12; Brief Thoughts

12 Put on then, as God’s chosen ones, holy and beloved, compassionate hearts, kindness, humility, meekness, and patience,

Having put off the old nature, Christians strive to live the lifestyle of holiness that develops feeds and satisfies their new nature. The phrase translated “put on then” is an exhortation that is based on the assumption that the reader has already been changed.[1] Having removed the death that once enshrouded their soul, Christians ought to put on the new life in Christ. This apparent change of attire is not surprising. As one has removed the old self, the new-self has become the defining wardrobe.

This change of natures is due to God’s choice. Least any reader consider him or herself to be wise and boast in their own strength, Paul reassures us that God is the one who has accomplished the work of salvation and He is also the one who has brought life to the previously dead soul. God has chosen to save and set-apart believers because He loves them. The Creator has deemed that He will love His creation and redeem those who believe simply because they are His (1 John 4:10). If therefore, we have been chosen as His and if we are His holy and beloved, then we will look and behave as such.

Evidence of a changed nature bears obvious manifestation in the actions of interpersonal relationships. When one has become changed and has been given a new nature that is capable of pursuing holiness, they will inevitably become more like Christ. So Paul exhorts the believer to pursue divine love and grace within the context of their relationships.

Let us take the next words slowly, that we may feast on the richness of the exhortation.

First, a believer must recognize that they are “chosen ones, holy and beloved.” Consider for a moment what that means. God saw fit to rescue and set believers apart.[2] He set them apart (“holy”) because they are beloved by Him. God has lavished His love upon His believers. The recognition that God has redeemed and saved Christians by His own will, ought to lead believers to a sense of equality and grace style living as a result. The manifest characteristics that follow are a result of the truth that God has redeemed a lost soul, has changed that soul and has given life to that soul.

Second, believers exhibit compassionate hearts. They have a genuine concern for others. Most often this particular attribute is manifested in the activity of prayer and social action. When a truly converted Christian hears of devastation, they weep. It is, therefore, reasonable to gauge the hearts of a Christian community by their prayer concerns for those who are persecuted (Romans 12:15).

Third, kindness overflows from the compassionate heart. As a believer is confronted with tragedy and difficulty, they will respond in kind acts. A compassionate heart without kindness is hypocritical. Therefore, the genuineness of the heart is made evident in the kind actions of the hands.

Fourth, Christians ought to bear a humble disposition. When a person realizes that salvation is by grace through faith granted from God, then there is no room for haughty self-righteousness. Rather a Christian recognizes that they are no better than the darkest of sinners. There is no room for self-righteous pride in the life of a believer. If any is found, God will certainly sanctify that malady out of the Christian’s life (Hebrews 12:6).

Fifth, the meekness of Christ is evident in the life of a believer. It is evident because Christ lives within. If Jesus’ spirit is indwelling the Christian, the Christian will manifest meekness. They will think of the needs of others first, refuse to dominate or subdue others, and will have a generally gentle and hospitable demeanor.

Sixth, patience is often accepted as a key character trait of Christianity but dismissed because of circumstance. For instance, a Christian will find themselves frustrated with circumstance caused by others and will vent that frustration in unholy gossip or slander. Yet, it is generally accepted that patience is a fruit of the Spirit that ought to characterize a Christian (Galatians 5:22-24). So, the true believer is without excuse for such ventilation. The true Christian ought to bear with circumstances and with others in patience and the evidence of that patience will be a lack of grumbling or complaining (Phil. 2:14).

We will consider the rest of Paul’s list tomorrow.

[1] This verb is in the Aorist Imperative tense. Often aorist imperatives can be understood as delivering an exhortation that is based on a condition apparent from the past. For example: If a man becomes an engineer, goes to school and achieves the degree. The aorist tense imperative might appear when one says, “Let him work in the engineering field.” It is a command based on a condition that became him in the past.

[2] I am not here entering into a discussion of election, though that would be appropriate. That is a long discussion for another passage.